Over the weekend, multilateral talks created an agreement to cap and reduce hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HFCs are the replacement substance for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that were banned under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1989) for their ozone-depleting capacity. Whilst the adoption of HFCs has significantly helped to restore the ozone layer, the rapid uptake of HFCs, namely through the wide-spread adoption of air-conditioners by developing countries, has contributed to enhanced global warming. HFCs have a high global warming potential and are recognised as a greenhouse gas under the Kyoto Protocol (2005).
On Saturday, global leaders agreed to the Kigalia amendment to the Montreal Protocol which will reduce the production and consumption of HFCs. Developed countries are expected to start the phasing out of HFCs by 2019, and developing countries are to do the same by 2024. The ban is expected to prevent a global rise of 0.5 degrees Celsius by the end of century.
The Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation has been adopted by the UN Aviation Agency in the week preceding the Kigalia amendment. The Scheme seeks to reduce carbon dioxide emissions generated by international aviation as an industry-specific climate change mitigation measure.
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